The complete list of authors will appear in the full citation at the end of your paper. Your Literature Cited should appear in alphabetical order by first author, and by year if there are multiple sources by the same author s.
Underline journal and book titles, but not the titles of individual articles in journals or edited multi-authored books. Use the following as examples for citing various kinds of sources with thanks to M. Glimpsing the hidden majority. Phosphotization of soft tissue in experiments and fossils. Journal of the Geological Society Seattle Times , January 5th, p. The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History. Taphonomy and the fossil record. Chordate affinities of the conodonts.
The complete web address should be presented so that anyone else could easily visit the same website. Attempt to include the following elements not all elements appear on all Web pages: URL full web address. Science moves forward only by building upon the work of others. There are, however, other reasons for citing references in scientific research papers. Citations to appropriate sources show that you've done your homework and are aware of the background and context into which your work fits, and they help lend validity to your arguments.
Reference citations also provide avenues for interested readers to follow up on aspects of your work -- they help weave the web of science. You may wish to include citations for sources that add relevant information to your own work, or that present alternate views.
The reference citation style described here is a version of the "Author, Date" scientific style, adapted from Hansen and the Council of Biology Editors You should acknowledge a source any time and every time you use a fact or an idea that you obtained from that source. Thus, clearly, you need to cite sources for all direct quotations.
But you also need to cite sources from which you paraphrase or summarize facts or ideas -- whether you've put the fact or idea into your own words or not, you got the fact or idea from somebody else and you need to give them proper acknowledgement even if an idea might be considered "common knowledge," but you didn't know it until you found it in a particular source.
You only need to include the page number in the citation if you are quoting directly, or if the source is very long and the specific fact or idea you are citing can only be found on a specific page.
Direct quotations that are more than 4 lines long should be set off from the rest of your paper by use of narrower margins and single spaced lines.
If you have more than one source by the same author published in the same year, distinguish them both in the in-text citation and in the reference list, by appending the letters a, b, c If your source of information is from a personal verbal communication, you would use the following format for the first citation from that person:.
If your source of information is from written correspondence a letter or e-mail , you would substitute the word "written" for the word "personal" above, and you would add the date of the letter if dated.
Personal communications are generally not included in the References Cited or Bibliography section, although unpublished papers, reports or manuscripts should be.
If your source of information has no individual identifiable author, use the name of the organization to which the work can be attributed in place of the author's name:.
For internet sources without any identifiable author or date, simply use the URL address as the in-text citation:. Your list of References Cited should include all of the references you cited in your paper, and no more! It should be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author. If you have more than one entry by the same author, they should be further ordered by increasing publication date more recent papers last.
If you have multiple sources from a single author published in the same year, distinguish them both in the in-text citation and in the reference list, by appending the letters a, b, c You should include enough information that your readers will be able to find these sources on their own.
When to Cite References in Scientific Research Papers. You should acknowledge a source any time (and every time) you use a fact or an idea that you obtained from that source. Thus, clearly, you need to cite sources for all direct quotations.
Scientific Style and Format presents three systems for referring to references (also known as citations) within the text of a journal article, book, or other scientific publication: 1) citation–sequence; 2) name–year; and 3) citation–name. These abbreviated references are called in-text references.
Citation Machine™ helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use. Cite your journal article in Scientific Reports format for free. In-Text Citations There are typically not footnotes or endnotes in scientific writing as there are in humanities and the social sciences. Instead, all citations occur in the text inparenthetical format, with the author(s) and date of publication.
How to Cite a Journal in Print in MLA Include the author's name, the title of the article, the name of the journal, the series number/type of the journal (if given), the volume number (if given), the issue number (if given), the year of publication, the page numbers of the article, format. | Citations in the body of the paper | Full Citation Rules in Lit. Cited | Journals | Books | | Thesis | WWW | Personal Communication | DO NOTS. NOTE: Although you should use these citation formats in this and other biology courses, specific formats vary considerably for individual journals.