An initial approach often involves screening for and, if necessary, treating any mineral deficiencies or other comorbid conditions. Looking back at the different causes of pica related to assessment, the clinician will try to develop a treatment.
First, there is pica as a result of social attention. If their pica is a result of obtaining a favorite item, a strategy may be used where the person is able to receive the item or activity without eating inedible items.
If pica is a way for a person to escape an activity or situation, the reason why the person wants to escape the activity should be examined and the person should be moved to a new situation.
If pica is motivated by sensory feedback, an alternative method of feeling that sensation should be provided. Other non-medication techniques might include other ways for oral stimulation such as gum. Foods such as popcorn have also been found helpful. Behavior-based treatment options can be useful for developmentally disabled and mentally ill individuals with pica. Many use aversion therapy, where the patient learns through positive reinforcement which foods are good and which ones they should not eat.
Often treatment is similar to the treatment of obsessive compulsive or addictive disorders such as exposure therapy. In some cases treatment is as simple as addressing the fact they have this disorder and why they may have it. A recent study classified nine such classes of behavioral intervention: Success with treatment is generally high and generally fades with age, but it varies depending on the cause of the disorder.
Developmental causes tend to have a lower success rate. Prevalence rates for children are unknown. The term pica originates in the Latin word for magpie Picave ,  a bird that is famed for its unusual eating behaviors, where it is known to eat almost anything.
In the southern United States in the s, geophagia was a common practice among the slave population. Kaolinite became the active ingredient in drugs like Kaopectate and Pepto-Bismol, although the formulations have since found additional active ingredients to replace Kaolinite. Research on eating disorders from the 16th century to the 20th century suggests that during that time in history, pica was regarded more as a symptom of other disorders rather than its own specific disorder.
Even today, what could be classified as pica behavior is a normative practice in some cultures as part of their beliefs, healing methods, or religious ceremonies. Unlike in humans, pica in dogs or cats may be a sign of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia , especially when it involves eating substances such as tile grout , concrete dust, and sand.
Dogs exhibiting this form of pica should be tested for anemia with a CBC or at least hematocrit levels. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Acuphagia sharp objects Amylophagia starch Cautopyreiophagia burnt matches Coniophagia dust Coprophagia feces Emetophagia vomit Geomelophagia raw potatoes Geophagia dirt, soil, clay Hyalophagia glass  Lithophagia stones  Mucophagia mucus Pagophagia ice Plumbophagia lead Trichophagia hair, wool, and other fibers Urophagia urine Hematophagia Vampirism blood Xylophagia wood, or derivates of wood such as paper.
Presentation of attention, food or toys, not contingent on pica being attempted Differential reinforcement, with positive reinforcement if pica is not attempted and consequences if pica is attempted Discrimination training between edible and inedible items, with negative consequences if pica is attempted Visual screening, with eyes covered for a short time after pica is attempted Aversive presentation, contingent on pica being attempted: Handbook of preschool mental health: Retrieved 3 June Archivos latinoamericanos de nutricion.
Common but commonly missed". The Humane Society of the United States. Retrieved 2 May A Dictionary of Psychology. Pebbles in and Pebbles out" PDF. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. American Journal of Human Biology. Kevin Grigsby, et al. Retrieved 1 March It Might Be Good for You. An OCD spectrum disorder? The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry.
European Journal of Pediatrics. Research in Developmental Disabilities. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. American Journal of Mental Deficiency. Feeding and eating disorders of infancy and early childhood". Kaplan and Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry 9th ed. Social work in mental health: John Wiley and Sons. Retrieved 27 October Life Traces of the Georgia Coast: Gender, age, and family history all may contribute to the development of an eating disorder.
Other key factors may also include emotional disorders, dieting, life transitions, and various sports and work activities. Even though eating disorders are found in males, females are more likely to develop them.
Five percent of women and one percent of men in the United States are affected by eating disorders. Pre-teen and teen girls are at a higher risk than any other age or gender group. In a nationwide study, it was discovered that Eating disorders are more likely to occur in people when someone in their family has struggled with the disorder in the past.
Emphasis on outward appearance or physical traits can make a person become obsessed with looking perfect. If a person is put under a large amount of pressure and stress by their parents to be successful, an eating disorder can develop.
Eating disorders can also develop because the person feels that she has lost all control in her life, and food is something she can control. If physical, sexual, or emotional abuse is taking place within a family, the person may look for a way to block out the pain or a way to punish herself, if she thinks she are the reason that the abuse is taking place. Usually when a person struggles with an eating disorder there are other emotional or mental disorders involved.
A person with emotional or mental disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder are at a higher risk for an eating disorder. Depression and eating disorders are not a good combination because every time a person with an eating disorder gets depressed they can turn to food or turn away from it. Eating disorders can occur in people who also struggle with obsessive compulsive disorder. The anxiety disorder can cause someone to be nervous or scared about gaining weight and thus resluting in an eating disorder.
People in todays society are obssed with being thin and looking perfect. Major and even minor life changes can trigger an eating disorder.
Transitions or changes such as moving from Junior High to High school, a death in the family and parents getting divorced can be contrubutions to an eating disorder. Other trandsitions such as getting a new job, breaking up with a boyfriend, and moving to a new town or state can also be contrubiting factors. All of these transitions can be consisderd contributing factors becasue they usually casue stress and sometimes depression. Certian extracricruclar activtive or even certian jobs can be a contrubuting factor to an eating disorder.
In sports such as competitive cheerleading, gymnastics, ice skating, dance, and running a higher emphisis is put on thiness to be a sucessful athlete in those sports, therefore this could cause the disorder to devlop.
Coaches or parents can acidently trigger an eating disorder by engouraging their athelete to lose weight so they can preform better. Also in jobs such as acting, modeling, or artiststry an eating disorder can devlop becasue in these jobs people are put in the sportlight and are willing to to whatever it takes to be better look than everyone else. Eating disorders do not only effect a person before she finds help or treatment for her disorder but they can have lifelong effects on her health.
Eating disorders have long and short term effects. Examples of short term effects are malnutrition, dehydration, electrolyte embalances, lanugo, edema, dry hair and skin, burising or swelling and hyperactivity.
Theese are only a few of many short term effects of this life thereatning disorder. Long term effects include hypotension or hypertension, thrombocytopenia, diabetes, osteoperossis, kidney or liver infection and failure, amenorrhea, slowed heart rate, parlysis, and eventually death.
Malnutrition, dehydration and electrolye embalances are all casued becasue she is not getting enough vitimans and menerals to keep her body functioning normaly.
Short term effects can also affect a young girls outward apperaance too some of these outward effects are lungo, which is soft down hair on face, back and arms. The body produces lungo as a mechinisim to keep it self warm becasue of the lack of fat on the body. Another outward effect is, "Edema, which is swelling of the soft tissues as a result of excess water accumulation.
It is most common in the abdominal area of anorexics and bluemicas. Hyperactivity can also be a short term effect of an eating disorder, this of course can be treated with medication.
Eating disorders do not only effect a girl while they are struggeling with them but they can go on to effect the girl for the rest of their life, even after she has stoped practicing eating diorder behaviors. Hypotension, low blood pressure is caused by malnutrition and dehyrdation. Hypotension can lead to heart complications suchs as hear arthymethis or shock. Hypotension, high blood pressure is more likely to occure in paitents that have binge eating disorder or are compulsive overeaters.
Thrombocytopenia, which is also known as low platelet count is caused by malnutrition and becasue of the lack of the vitiman B12 and floic acid. This can caused a weakend immune system. Diabetes is also a long term effect of an eating disorder which can be casued by hormone imbalances or hyperglycemia. When someone struggles with an eating disorder, their body gets weaker and weaker as the disorder continues.
An example of the body weaking is the devlopment of osteopreosis in someone with an eating disorder. Osteopreosis is a thinning of the bones, which makes them more sustainable to breaking. Amnorea which is the loss of a menstural cycle can casue a woman to not be able to have a child or be able to get pregnant. Liver and kidney failure cacn also be a devastating effect of this disorder.
An eating disorder is a psychological dysfunction that causes a person to change their eating habits to eating less, or more etc. Firstly a biological approach was studied by Holland () on genetic concordance between identical twins and non-identical twins.
Xylophagia is a condition involving the consumption of paper and form of eating disorder known as pica. Pica is an unusual craving for ingestion of either edible or inedible substances. Inhalants are volatile substances, which produce chemical vapors that can be inhaled to induce a .
Mar 14, · Eating Disorders essays / Eating Disorder: Anorexia Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa It is not easy to understand a person suffering from Anorexia. People suffering from anorexia take . This paper, "Eating Disorders: More to Them Than Meets the Mouth," was a review of several studies on anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa that showd primarily that the disorders may be more prevalent than popular belief reflects.
Pica is the persistent eating of substances such as dirt or paint that have no nutritional value. The Handbook of Clinical Child Psychology currently estimates that prevalence rates of pica range from . An eating disorder is a psychological illness where the subject has an abnormal relationship with food, and has a distorted view himself or herself.