Several stages are involved in essay preparation, choosing which points are to be considered, deciding how you will deal with them, and the actual writing. As you gain more experience you will find methods and ways of working which suit you, your personality and lifestyle.
Generally, however, the process will involve the following. You should examine carefully the statements made in the essay question , making sure you understand each word and what is being asked, as misreading and misunderstanding at this stage can be fatal. Essay questions can be very general, very specific and sometimes deliberately provocative, and an understanding of them is essential. Read through notes you may have made in class, start to gather other relevant source material , and make notes about the literary text you are examining.
Ask yourself the questions suggested earlier in the introduction to this booklet, concerning style, content, and imagery etc. Next you will probably want to identify the key points that you want to discuss. There may be many points you find generally interesting, but ask yourself if they are relevant to the essay in question. To do this it can be useful to try to think of a title for your essay.
This is not to be confused with the essay question or title, but is concerned with your response to the task set. What title would best give the reader an overview of your approach and analysis, and highlight the main points you examine and the conclusions you reach?
Suggestions concerning conclusions will be given later. You should not assume that an essay has to include and cover all the possible points an interpretation may offer up.
A short, well organised and structured essay focusing on some of the main points is far better than an over-long and unwieldy attempt to say a little about everything. You may find it useful to state in the introduction which points you are focusing on and why. Keep your reader informed of the development of your argument. Let her or him know which direction is being taken and the reasons why. Once the main points have been identified you need to consider in which order they will be examined.
Students often do not make the most of the good ideas they have because they get lost if the argument does not develop coherently. Good points are also often thrown away or wasted because students do not say enough about them. Make sure the relevance of each point to the main argument is clearly stated and demonstrated. You should dwell and linger on the points: A good essay takes time to prepare and write, so start to think about it and do the groundwork well ahead of the essay deadline even in timed conditions, such as exams, it is important to take the time to organise and structure the essay before starting to write.
You will probably find that you need to work out your ideas on paper before writing the essay, and are encouraged to prepare an outline of the essay: This will help you to organise the structure and to recognise what is relevant and irrelevant to the essay as a whole. Some people find that a plan or outline will consist of eight to ten words only.
Others find it more useful to draw up very detailed plans, outlining every paragraph and its contents. Again you will discover which method works for you as you go along. Some students find it easier to think and plan the essay point by point before beginning to write, whilst others find that after some initial preparation, reading, organisation and thinking they can only develop their ideas through writing.
Both these approaches take time, if the essays are to be done well. It should be stressed here that the first plan does not have to be binding and may change as the work begins and develops. The main point here is that essays involve a certain amount of planning and preparation even before the actual writing begins. Having emphasised that essays are hard work and take time it should also be stressed that it can be very stimulating and rewarding to work through a number of ideas in depth and detail.
Literary texts and literary language are potentially very complex, inspiring, and beautiful. The ideas and images often demand careful thought and attention. Computers are essential in terms of using the time you spend on an essay efficiently and productively.
As stated earlier, good essay writing demands time spent on every stage of the process: With this in mind it cannot be stressed enough how important it is for you to learn word-processing skills and to make sure you have access to a computer. Use the university resources. Admittedly the space available is limited at times but this is no excuse not to learn the skills, if you do not already possess them, and to find out where there are available computer terminals.
Of course if you use university resources it is even more important to start your essay early in order to avoid the last minute rush as most students, not only from this department, search for terminals in a panic on the Friday before a Monday deadline. It is appreciated that students are very busy and do have a lot of work, but it is a mistake to claim, as some students have been heard, that they are too busy to learn word-processing skills.
Ultimately word-processing will save you a lot of time. It is far easier to add and delete material, and to restructure and reorganise essays by moving material around, on a computer than if you are writing by hand.
Software has become really user-friendly; 'Word', for instance, will tell you what to do in explicit English or French, and typing skills can be learned whilst typing. Your essay will be the representation of an argument on a given subject or subjects. It will include only points which are relevant to the subject, so be careful to get rid of material that is not directly relevant. Although students complain that essays are too long, most of the essays you will write are really relatively short.
Part of the skill of writing is to write concisely and economically , without wasting material or 'padding' the work with irrelevant diversions and repetition.
Once the points have been chosen they should be presented logically and coherently , so do not leap about from point to point. Each point generally will have some connection to the preceding one and the one to follow. If you do leave one area of the essay to move into another, but intend later to go back to the point you have left and show, for example, how the points may be connected or related, then it can be useful to say so by 'signposting', e.
After each draft of the essay check that each point is presented in a logical and coherent order. Read each draft carefully and critically. Is there a significant idea you have not included in the essay?
Do you need to expand some of the points you have chosen to write about? Are some of the points, after due consideration, not really relevant? Have you been too long-winded or repetitive? Does your argument need to be clearer, and do the links between some of the main points need more emphasis?
Methodology is just between you and your sources, it is the approach adopted in preparing the paper. Though essays are generally shorter and less elaborate in their content than research papers, they also require a methodology description. This page was designed with the aim to explain you on examples how to write your essay methodology. Essay methodology examples may be easily accessible on the net. However, trying to adapt an essay methodology example from the net for your essay may become messy if care is not exercised.
Even if the subject of the example and your assignment are similar, not necessarily the same approach is used in then. Therefore, though choosing the right methodology that suits your assignment is important. Though preparing an essay involves defined methods, it is seldom revealed within the essay. But it does not mean that you cannot include essay methodology in your essay. While writing a Frankenstein essay or a Macbeth essay , you definitely would have used some method to collect, research, and organize your information.
Try to reflect on that in the essay and it will provide your reader with a guideline to your essay. For example an essay on Macbeth can be written very differently, depending on your essay question and your methodology. Macbeth is covered with superstitions, why not to study them? The topic is very interesting. But how are you going to approach it? Are you going to rely on some studies in your essay or do the research of your own?
What sources are you going to use? It is known that Shakespeare based his play on some other sources. So your essay may address the question how these sources were used in Macbeth. Research methodology involves the collection and analysis of materials relevant to the study. Thus, in all of these cases there are 4 basic ways to deal with the essay methodology:.
The type of research method that you follow will be much determined by the type of study. Depending on the purpose, your research method may take different forms. Some of the examples of research methods are: They may say want they think the interviewer wants to hear. The interviews are prone to interviewer bias since the interviewer may reward, correct or encourage responses that fit his or her expectations Ary et al through verbal and nonverbal cues.
In an interview there is no anonymity hence the respondents might fail to cooperate fully for fear of victimization. An interview may seem intrusive to the respondent. It carefully specifies beforehand the categories of behaviors or events under study and under what circumstances they should be assigned to those categories. Observations are then fragmented or coded into more managerial pieces of information which are later aggregated into usable quantifiable data.
Certain phenomenon can be accessed and properly understood only through observation ,for example interaction can be meaningfully assessed and understood only through observation. Croll observes that ,the presents of the researcher may influence the phenomenon itself. In other words those people under study may change their activities in the presence of the researcher. At times the researcher has to wait until the appropriate event takes place ,hence the exercise will be time consuming and labor intensive.
However the researcher choose this method so that she gets certain behaviors in their natural state. The targeted population was the teachers of mathematics, Heads of mathematics department, Heads of selected schools in Gokwe South central cluster and District officer of Gokwe south central cluster.
The cluster sampling technique was used to select the schools. Among the three schools chosen. Therefore a sample is part of a population. The purposive sampling technique was adopted.
Chiromo posits that ,purposive sampling is a judgemental form of sampling in which the researcher purposely selects certain groups of individuals for their relevance to the issue being studied. The researcher was interested in the Heads of the schools, Heads of the mathematics department , the teachers of mathematics and pupils learning mathematics at ordinary level.
It enables the selection of the key informants on the basis that they understand the challenges faced by teachers in the teaching of mathematics. According to Ary etal purposive sampling also known as judgment sampling, sample elements judged to be typical or representative are chosen from the population.
The assumption is that errors of judgment in the selection will counter balance one another. It is useful in attitude and opinion surveys. Three Head teachers of schools, six mathematics teachers, three heads of the mathematics department and one District officer were interviewed and thirty pupils responded to questionnaires. The District education officer was automatically selected because of his or her responsibilities and relevance to the study.
In selecting pupils for sampling, a hat method was used where by pupils were asked to write their names and put the names in a hat according to gender. A boy was picked by the researcher at random and was asked to pick five names of girls in the hat, one at a time likewise a girl was randomly chosen to pick five names of boys in a hat and the chosen pupils were the ones representing a sample at a school.
Five girls and five boys represented a school. For anonymity purposes selected schools were named A, B and C.
Essay methods are time-consuming and difficult to administer. Appraisers often find the essay technique more demanding than methods such as rating scales. The techniques greatest advantage - freedom of expression - is also its greatest handicap.
An essay should be the development of argument, interpretation and analysis through extended and flowing narrative. To do this you need to work at the level of the sentence, of course, but also, very importantly, you need to work at the level of the paragraph. The paragraph is a coherent passage of logically connected sentences usually concentrating on no more than one or two ideas relevant to .
Though preparing an essay involves defined methods, it is seldom revealed within the essay. But it does not mean that you cannot include essay methodology in your essay. While writing a Frankenstein essay or a Macbeth essay, you definitely would have used some method to . Free teaching methods papers, essays, and research papers.
If you need to write about education, sample essay on teaching methods will be a great helper for you. Check the sample essay and use it for your benefit. Writing argumentative essays requires an understanding of the subject matter and an opinion on the question that has been posed by the essay title. Many different methods exist for writing an argumentative essay, but the generally accepted method is to explain your argument in a thesis paragraph (the introduction).